Contemporary Period

Jewish History >> Contemporary Period

1712ce First public Jewish synagogue in Berlin
1730ce Jews build first North American synagogue in Lower Manhattan, Shearith Israel
1740ce England grants naturalization rights to Jews in the colonies
1753ce Parliament extends naturalization rights to Jews resident in England
1761ce First English prayer book for High Holidays is published in New York
1763ce The Jews of Newport, Rhode Island dedicate a Sephardic synagogue
1768-1828ce Israel Jacobson
1775ce Pius VI issues Editto sopra gli ebrei suppressing the Jewish religion
1729-1786ce Moses Mendelssohn
1765ce Portugal holds the last public Auto de Fe “Act of Faith,” a ceremony where the Inquisition announces its punishments
1781ce Joseph II of Austria rescinds law requiring Jews to wear distinctive badges
1783ce The Sultan of Morocco expels the Jews
1784-1885ce Sir Moses Montefiore, created numerous agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel
1791ce French Jews granted full citizenship
1791ce Tsarist Russia confines Jews to Pale of Settlement
1795ce First American Ashkenazi synagogue, Rodeph Shalom, is established in Philadelphia
1796ce The Netherlands grants citizenship to Jews
1808ce Polonies Talmud Torah, the first Jewish school on record in the United States established in New York
1812ce Prussia’s Edict of Emancipation grants citizenship to Jews
1814ce King Ferdinand VII of Portugal reestablishes the Inquisition
1814ce Denmark grants citizenship to Jews
1819ce Rebecca Gratz establishes the first independent Jewish women’s charitable society in Philadelphia
1819-1900ce Isaac Mayer Wise
1820ce A royal decree officially abolished the Spanish Inquisition
1824ce Society of Reformed Israelites is established in Charleston
1827ce Russia’s Conscription Law mandates 31 years of military service for Jews, beginning at age 12
1830ce Greece grants citizenship to Jews
1831ce Belgium grants citizenship to Jews
1832ce Canada grants Jews political rights
1837ce First Passover Haggadah printed in America
1838ce Rebecca Gratz establishes Hebrew Sunday School in Philadelphia
1840ce Jews are accused of murdering a Franciscan friar in the Damascus blood libel
1840ce First organized movement by American Jewry to protest false accusations of blood libel in Damascus, Syria
1840ce The first Hebrew printing press in India is established
1843ce B’nai B’rith is organized
1845ce Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Pentateuch
1847-1915ce Solomon Schechter
1848ce In every part of Germany, excluding Bavaria, Jews had been granted granted civil rights
1852ce Mount Sinai, the first Jewish Hospital in the United States is founded
1852ce The Ghetto of Prague is officially abolished
1853ce Isaac Leeser publishes his translation of the Bible into English
1855ce First acknowledged non-Muslim visitor permitted to enter Temple Mount since 1187 CE
1860ce Mishkenot Sha’ananim, built outside Jerusalem’s walls
1860-1904ce Theodore Herzl
1861ce Norway allows Jews to enter the country
1864ce Leon Pinsker writes Autoemancipation and argues for creation of a Jewish state
1866ce Jews become a majority in Jerusalem
1866ce Switzerland grants Jews equal rights
1867ce First rabbinical school in America, Maimonides College, is founded in Philadelphia
1867ce Hungary passes legislation emancipating the Jews
1867ce German journalist Wilhelm Marr coins the word “anti-Semitism”
1869ce Italy grants emancipation to Jews
1870ce Sweden grants citizenship to Jews
1870ce Ghettos abolished in Italy
1870ce The Edict of Pope Nicholas III which required compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons since 1278 is abolished
1871ce First Yiddish and Hebrew newspaper in America is published
1871ce Great Britain grants full emancipation to Jews
1871ce German constitution gives German Jews full legal equality
1873ce Reform Judaism in U.S. establishes Union of American Hebrew Congregations
1874ce Jews in Switzerland receive full rights of citizenship
1875ce Isaac Mayer Wise founds Hebrew Union College
1877ce New Hampshire becomes the last state to offer Jews political equality
1878ce The anti-Semitic German Christian Social Party is founded by Adolf Stoecker
1881ce Ottoman government announces permission for foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews to settle throughout Ottoman Empire
1881ce May Laws restricting the movements and conduct of Jews are enacted in Russia
1881ce The word “pogrom” enters the English language, as Russian mobs begin a series of violent attacks against Jews and their property
1884ce First Conference of Hovevei Zion Movement
1885ce Reform Jewish Pittsburgh Platform
1886ce Etz Chaim, the first yeshiva for Talmudic studies in the United States, established in New York
1887ce Jewish Theological Seminary opens in New York
1888ce Jewish Publication Society of America is founded
1891ce Grand Duke Segai orders the expulsion of 14,00 Jewish families living in Moscow
1892ce Ottoman government forbids sale of state land to foreign (non-Ottoman) Jews in Palestine
1894ce French general staff officer Alfred Dreyfus is sentenced to life on Devil’s Island
1894-1917ce Russian Czar Nicholas II commissioned the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”
1897ce First Jewish Zionist congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basle, Switzerland, Zionist Organization Founded
1897ce The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS) begins training Orthodox rabbis
1898ce Eastern European immigrants organize a Union of Orthodox Congregations
1898ce Emile Zola publishes J’Accuse
1899ce Emile Zola wins a new trial for Alfred Dreyfus
1899ce Theodor Herzl establishes the Jewish Colonial Trust
1901ce The Fifth Zionist Congress decides to establish Keren Kayemet LeIsrael
1902ce Solomon Schechter comes from England to America to head the Jewish Theological Seminary of America
1903ce British Government proposes “Uganda Scheme”
1903ce Kishinev massacre increases Jewish exodus from Russia
1903-1907ce 500,000 Jews flee Russia, 90% go to the United States
1904-1914ce Second Aliyah, mainly from Russia and Poland
1905ce Gimnazia Herzilia, the first Hebrew high school, opens in Tel Aviv
1906ce American Jewish Committee is founded
1906ce First Hebrew high school founded in Jaffa and Bezalel school founded in Jerusalem
1908ce Turkey grants Jews political rights
1908-1914ce Second Yemenite Aliyah
1909ce First kibbutz, Degania, founded
1909ce Founding of Tel Aviv
1909ce Hashomer, the first Jewish self-defense organization is founded
1912ce Henrietta Szold founds Hadassah
1912ce Haifa’s Technion is founded
1912ce Agudah (Agudat Israel) formed
1913ce Trial of Leo Frank
1913ce Solomon Schechter founds the United Synagogue of America
1915ce The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is created
1915ce Leo Frank is hung by a lynch mob
1917ce Jewish Telegraphic Agency is founded
1917ce Four-hundred years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest
1917ce The Balfour Declaration favors Jewish Palestinian State
1917ce Turkish Governor of Jaffa orders all Jews to leave Tel-Aviv and Jaffa
1917ce Jews granted full rights in Russia
1917ce The Jewish Welfare Board is created
1917ce Surrender of Ottoman forces in Jerusalem to Allied Forces
1918ce American Jewish Congress is founded
1919ce Romania grants citizenship to Jews
1919ce Chaim Weizmann heads Zionist delegation at Versailles Peace Conference
1919-1923ce Third Aliyah, mainly from Russia
1920ce Histadrut (Jewish labor federation) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded
1920ce Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community
1920ce Keren Hayesod created
1920ce Chaim Weizmann elected president of the World Zionist Organization
1920ce Fall of Tel Hai to Arab attackers
1921ce The Times of London pronounces the Protocols of the Elders of Zion a forgery
1921ce U.S. immigration laws “reformed” to effectively exclude Eastern European Jews
1921ce Arab riots in Jaffa and other cities
1921ce Nahalal founded in the Jezreel Valley
1921ce Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook and Rabbi Ya’akov Meir are elected the first two cheif Rabbis of Eretz-Israel
1922ce Britain granted Mandate for Palestine
1922ce Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the British mandate area
1922ce Jewish Agency set up
1922ce Mordecai M. Kaplan founds the Society for the Advancement of Judaism
1922ce United States Congress and President Harding approve the Balfour Declaration
1922ce League of Nations Council approves Mandate for Palestine
1922ce First British census of Palestine shows total population 757,182 (11% Jewish)
1923ce Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa
1924-1932ce Fourth Aliyah, mainly from Poland
1924ce Benjamin Frankel starts Hillel Foundation
1924ce The first conference of the General Zionist movement is held in Jerusalem
1925ce Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mt. Scopus
1928ce Britain recognizes independence of Transjordan
1928ce Yeshiva College is dedicated in New York
1929ce 2,000 Arabs attack Jews praying at the Kotel
1929ce Hebron Jews massacred by Arab militants
1929-1939ce Fifth Aliyah, from Germany
1930ce Hope-Simpson report recommends and end to all Jewish immigration to Eretz-Israel
1930ce Lord Passfield issues his White Paper banning further land acquisition by Jews and slowing Jewish immigration
1930ce Second British census of Palestine shows total population of 1,035,154 (16.9% Jewish)
1931ce Etzel (the Irgun), Jewish underground organization, founded
1933ce Riots in Jaffa and Jerusalem
1934ce In Afghanistan, two thousand Jews are expelled from towns
1935ce Jewish rights in Germany rescinded by Nuremberg laws
1935ce Hakibbutz Hadati, the religious kibbutz movement is founded
1935ce Regina Jonas was ordained by Liberal (Reform) Rabbi Max Dienemann in Germany, becoming the first woman rabbi
1935ce Ze’ev Jabotinsky founds the New Zionist Organization
1936ce World Jewish Congress convened in Geneva
1937ce Reform Jewish Columbus Platform
1937ce The Peel Commission recommends the partition of Palestine between Jews and Arabs
1937ce Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion accept partition plan
1937ce Central conference of American Rabbis reaffirm basic reform philosophies in the Colombus Platform
1938ce Kristallnacht
1938ce Charles E. Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest, launches media campaign in America against Jews
1939ce Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper
1939ce S.S. St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany, is turned back by Cuba and the United States
1940ce Nazis establish ghettos in Poland
1940ce British refuse illegal immigrant ship, the Patria, permission to dock in Palestine
1941ce Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Lehi) or Stern Gang underground movement formed
1941ce Palmach, strike force of Haganah, set up
1942ce Rabbi Stephen S. Wise publicizes Riegner report confirming mass murder of European Jews
1942ce Biltmore Conference of American Zionists
1942ce Nazi leaders refine the “Final Solution” at Wannsee Conference
1943ce Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
1943ce Raphael Lemkin coins the term genocide
1943ce Zionist Biltmore Conference
1945ce International tribunal for war crimes is established at Nuremberg
1946ce The west wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem was destroyed by members of the Irgun
1946ce The British Government announced that it will allow no more unscheduled immigration into Palestine
1947ce British Cabinet decided to partition Palestine
1947ce Units of the British Royal Navy took the disabled “Moledeth” with 1,600 illegal Jewish refugees
1947ce The British Government requested France and Italy to prevent Jews from embarking for Palestine
1947ce A British naval unit boarded the refugee ship “Guardian” and seized it along with 2,700 passengers
1947ce The 1,200 ton Haganah freighter “Trade Winds” was seized by the Royal Navy
1947ce The British government protested to the United States government against American fund-raising drives for Jewish underground groups
1947ce A British naval party boarded the immigrant ship “Mordei Haghettoath”
1947ce The Haganah ship “Yehuda Halevy” arrived under British naval escort with 399 illegal Jewish immigrants; they were immediately transferred to Cyprus
1947ce President Truman asked all persons in the US to refrain from helping Jewish underground groups
1947ce Rioting broke out among the passengers of the “Exodus 1947” when they learned they were to be resumed to France
1947ce Haganah sank the British tansport “Empire Lifeguard” in Haifa harbor
1947ce Two small Haganah ships loaded with 1,174 Jews from North Africa were intercepted by British naval units
1947ce British troops completed a two-day forced debarkation of 4,300 “Exodus 1947” illegal Jewish refugees from three ships in Hamburg, Germany
1947ce A terrorist bomb damaged the US. consulate general in Jerusalem
1947ce About 185 European Jews landed near Netanya from a small schooner and escaped before the British could intercept them
1947ce The “Kadimah,” was seized and brought to Haifa by the British
1947ce The United States Department of State announced that they were placing an embargo on all American arms shipments to the Middle East
1947ce The Dollis Hill Synagogue in London was set on fire
1947ce UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land
1947ce Scrolls dating from approximately 22 B.C.E. are discovered at Qumran, near the Dead Sea
1948ce The U.S. War Assets Administration received orders from Army Secretary Kenneth Royal to cancel its sale of 199 tons of M-3 explosive to a purchasing agent of the Jewish Agency
1948ce The FBI arrested six New York men on charges of trying to ship Haganah 60,000 pounds of TNT