Medieval Christian/Islamic Period

Jewish History >> Medieval Christian/Islamic Period

511ce Rebellion leader Mar Zutra usurps power from Kobad the Zenduk, establishing an independent Jewish state in Babylon
516ce Southern Arabian king Ohu Nuwas adopts Judaism
587ce Recared of Spain adopts Catholicism and declares that children of mixed marriages be raised Christian
570ce Birth of Prophet Muhammad, Makkah
610ce Visigothic ruler Sesbut prohibits Judaism
614ce Persian General Romizanes captures Jerusalem and allows Jews to run the city
617ce Persians forbid Jews from living within three miles of Jerusalem
624-627ce Muhammad attacks Jewish Arabian tribes for refusing to convert to Islam
627-629ce Emperor Heraclius massacred any Jews he found and forbids them entry into Jerusalem
632ce The Jewish tribe Kaibar defends itself against Muslim forces
600-1300ce Period of the Jewish Rabbinic Geonim
637ce Muslim forces capture Caesarea, forcing the city’s estimated 100,000 Jews to follow the Pact of Omar
638ce Caliph Umar conquers Jerusalem and Jews are permitted to return to the city
685ce Muslims extend Jerusalem and rebuild walls and roads
691ce First account of Jews in England
692ce Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik
712ce Jews help Muslim invaders capture Spain, ending Visogoth rule
715ce Al-Aqsa Mosque built, Jerusalem
760ce Karaite Judaism founded
740-1259ce Jewish Kingdom of Khazar
807ce Harun Al Rashid, Caliph of the Abbasids forces Baghdad Jews to wear a yellow badge
882-942ce Saadia Gaon
942ce Office of the Exilarch was abolished
1000ce Rabbi Gershon of Mainz, Germany, publishes a ban on bigamy
1008ce Egyptian Caliph Hakkim forced all Jews to wear a “golden calf” around their necks
1009ce Oldest existing text of full Hebrew Bible is written
1032ce Rebel Abul Kamal Tumin conquered Fez and decimated the Jewish community
1139ce Judah Halevi completes his influential philosophy of Judaism known as The Kuzari
1040-1105ce Rashi
1066ce In the wake of the Norman conquest of England, Jews left Normandy
1070ce Rashi completes his commentaries on most parts of the Bible
1070-1139ce Moses Ibn Ezra
1071ce Seljuk occupation of Jerusalem
1078ce Pope Gregory VII prohibited Jews from holding offices in Christendom
1086-1145ce Judah Halevi
1090ce Iban Iashufin, King of the Almoravides, captured Granada and destroyed the Jewish community
1095ce Henry IV of Germany issued a charter to the Jews and a decree against forced baptism
1096ce Participants in the First Crusade massacre Jews in several Central European cities, beginning centuries of pogroms linked to the Crusades
1099ce First Crusade Begins rule in Jerusalem
1120ce Jews from Muslim countries begin to settle in Byzantium
1135-1204ce Rambam
1147ce Second Crusade begins
1171ce In the town of Blois, southwest of Paris, Jews are falsely accused of committing ritual murder and blood libel
1181ce Philip expels Jews from France
1187ce Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from Crusaders grants Jews permission to re-enter
1191ce Third Crusade begins
1194-1270ce Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides)
1195ce Maimonides completes The Guide to the Perplexed
1202ce Fourth Crusade begins
1210ce 300 French and English rabbis make aliyah
1215ce The Church’s Fourth Lateran Council decrees that Jews be differentiated from others by their type of clothing
1217ce Fifth Crusade begins
1228ce Sixth Crusade begins
1229ce King Henry III of England forced Jews to pay half the value of their property in taxes
1239ce Pope Gregory IX orders the kings of France, England, Spain and Portugal to confiscate Hebrew books
1243ce First accusation of desecration of the Host in Berlitz, Germany
1244ce Tartars capture Jerusalem
1247ce Pope Innocent IV issued a Bull refuting blood libels
1248ce Seventh Crusade begins
1253ce King Henry III of England ordered Jewish worship in synagogue to be held quietly
1254ce French King Louis IX expelled the Jews from France
1254-1517 Mamluk Islamic rule in Egypt
1258ce Fall of Islamic Abbasid dynasty to Hulagu (Mongol)
1267ce Vienna city council forced Jews to wear the Pileum cornutum, a cone-shaped headdress
1267ce Ramban (Nachmanides) arrives in Israel
1270ce Eighth and Ninth Crusades begin
1275ce King Edward of England banned usury and forced Jews over the age of seven to wear an identifying badge
1278ce The Edict of Pope Nicholas III requires compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons
1282ce The Archbishop of Canterbury, John Pectin, ordered all London synagogues to closed and prohibited Jewish physicians from practicing on Christians
1285ce Blood libel in Munich, Germany
1287 Blood libel in Oberwesel
1290ce English King Edward I expels the Jews from England
1306ce Philip IV orders all Jews expelled from France
1321ce Jews were accused of encouraging lepers to poison Christian wells in France
1321ce Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear yellow badges
1322ce Charles IV of France expels all French Jews
1348-1349ce Much of Europe blames the Black Plague on the Jews and tortured to confess that they poisoned the wells
1348ce Basle burns 600 Jews at the stake and forcibly baptizes 140 children, expelling the city’s other Jews
1348ce Pope Clement VI issues an edict repudiating the libel against Jews
1386ce Emperor Wenceslaus expels the Jews from Strassbourg and confiscate their property
1389ce Pope Boniface continues the policy of Clement VI, forbidding the Christians to harm Jews, destroy their cemeteries or forcibly baptize them
1391ce Ferrand Martinez, archdeacon of Ecija, begins a campaign against Spanish Jewry
1391ce King Pedro I orders Spain not to harm the remaining Jews
1415ce Benedict XIII bans the study of the Talmud
1420ce Pope Martin V favorably reinstates old privileges of the Jews
1420ce All Jews are expelled from Lyons
1422ce Pope Martin V issues a bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warns the Friars not to incite against the Jews
1453ce Ottomans begin rule from Constantinople
1463ce Pope Nicholas V authorized the establishment of the Inquisition
1480ce Inquisition established in Spain
1486ce First prayer book published in Soncino, Italy
1488ce The first complete edition of the Hebrew Bible is printed in Soncino, Italy
1492ce End of Muslim states in Spain
1492ce Christian expulsion of Jews from Spain
1494ce Polish King Jan Olbracht’s orders Jews to leave to leave Crakow
1496ce Manuel of Portugal expels Jews from Portugal
1510ce 38 Jews were burned at the stake in Berlin
1516ce Jews in Venice are relegated to a ghetto
1543ce Luther writes “About the Jews and Their Lies”
1547ce Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in his kingdom
1555ce Jewish ghetto instituted in Rome
1567ce Shulhan Arukh published