Glossary (L-O)

Glossary >> Glossary (L-O)

L
Lag B’Omer
Hebrew
The thirty-third day in the counting of the Omer

Lamah
Hebrew Why

Lamed
Hebrew
1. Twelfth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; 2. Represents the number thirty

Lashon Hara
Hebrew
Speaking any form of evil/gossip about another Jew

Latke [picture]
Hebrew Potato pancake traditionally eaten during Chanukah

Layil
Hebrew 1. Night 2. Gloom 3. Protective shadow

Lechem Mishneh [picture]
Hebrew [lit. two breads] The two challahs used for Hamotzi

L’hitraot
Hebrew See you soon

Limmud
Hebrew Learning

Lool
Hebrew 1. Staircase 2. Winding stair 3. Enclosed place with steps

L’shem Shamayim
Hebrew For the sake of Heaven

Luchot
Hebrew
Tablets

Lulav
Hebrew
[lit. palm frond] 1. One of the four species used on Sukkot; 2. The four species used on Sukkot

M
Maachalos Assuros
Hebrew
Forbidden foods

Ma’amadot
Hebrew Halting of the cortege seven times during the recitation of Tziduk HaDin (prayer at a Jewish funeral)

Ma’ariv
Hebrew
Evening Prayer

Ma’aseih Kiur
Hebrew An act of ugliness

Ma’aser Sheni
Hebrew
1. The second tithe and bringing it to Jerusalem; 2. A tractate of Zeraim

Ma’asering
Hebrew
Tithing

Ma’aserot
Hebrew
1. Tithes for the Levites and the poor; 2. A tractate of Zeraim

Machloket
Hebrew 1. Argument; 2. Public disagreement

Machmir
Hebrew Stringent

Machshirin
Hebrew
1. Liquids and foods that are susceptible to ritual uncleanness; 2. A tractate of Tohorot

Machsom
Hebrew
Checkpoint

Machzor
Hebrew
[lit. repetition] A prayer book used during the High Holy Days (Rosh Hashannah and Yom Kippur)

Machzor Vitry
Hebrew Halachic commentary on the liturgy of the entire year

Madricha
Hebrew
Counselor

Maftir
Hebrew
The last part of the Torah reading during Shabbat or a festival

Malchuyot
Hebrew God’s sovereignty over the world

Magen David
Hebrew
1. Shield of David or Star of David; 2. Six-pointed star used as a Jewish symbol since the seventeenth century CE

Maghrebim (pl.)
Hebrew Jews from North Africa and parts of North-West Africa

Makat B’Chorot
Hebrew Death of the firstborn

Makil
Hebrew Lenient

Makkos
Hebrew 1. False witnesses, cities of refuge, corporal punishment; 2. A tractate of Nezikin

Malach
Hebrew
[lit. messenger] Angel

Malach HaMavet
Hebrew
Angel of Death

Malachi
Hebrew
1. Prophet of the Jews; 2. The twenty-first book of the Nevi’im

Malkut
Hebrew
Sovereignty

Mamzer (Mamzerim pl.)
Hebrew A child conceived from a forbidden relationship

Mamzerut
Hebrew Illegitimacy

Manhiga Ruchanit
Hebrew Spiritual advisor

Manna
Hebrew
Food Hashem provided the Jews in the desert during the Exodus

Manot (pl.)
Hebrew Portions

Mara D’Atra
Hebrew 1. Authoritative leader; 2. Rabbinic authority for a given community/synagogue

Marrano
Spanish
[lit. pig] Jews of Spain and Portugal who converted to Christianity yet continued to practice Judaism in secret

Marror [picture]
Hebrew Bitter herbs (usually horseradish) eaten at the Passover

Mashiach
Hebrew
[lit. annointed one] 1. Messiah; 2. Annointed kings, priests, and prophets of Israel

Mashiach Sheker
Hebrew
False messiah

Maskil
Hebrew
A Jew participating in the Haskalah

Masoret
Hebrew Tradition

Masorti
Hebrew
[lit. traditional] Term used for Conservative Judaism outside North America

Masorti Olami
Hebrew
International body of synagogues affiliated with the Conservative/Masorti Movement

Matan Torah
Hebrew
Giving of the Torah

Matzah
Hebrew
Unleavened bread eaten during Pesach

Matzah Ashirah
Hebrew 1. Egg matzah; 2. Matzah baked from dough made of flour mixed with liquids other than water (usually eggs or fruit juice)

Matzah M’Shumeret
Hebrew [lit. watched matzah] Grain stored from harvest to prevent contact with water

Matzav
Hebrew
Situation

Matzevah
Hebrew Headstone

Mayim (sing./pl.)
Hebrew Waters

Mayim Achronim
Hebrew
[lit. after waters] The washing of the fingertips at the conclusion of a meal in preparation for bentching

Mayim Chayim
Hebrew [lit.] Living waters

Mayim Sh’uvim
Hebrew Water from collections such as wells or reservoirs

Mazal
Hebrew
Good luck

Mazal Tov
Hebrew
Good luck, congratulations

M’dinat Yisrael
Hebrew State of Israel

Mechitzah [picture]
Hebrew A physical barrier that separates men and women in the synagogue

Mechoa
Hebrew Protest

Medinat Yisrael
Hebrew
State of Israel

Megillah (Megillot pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. scroll] 1. One of five Tanach books read on special days (Esther, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, and Ecclesiastes); 2. A tractate of Moed

Me’ila
Hebrew
1. Sacrilegious treatment of Temple property; 2. A tractate of Kodashim

Mekabel Shabbat
Hebrew Accepting Shabbat

Melacha (Melachot pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. work] Forbidden labor on Shabbat

Melaveh Malkah
Hebrew
Festive meal held after the end of Shabbat

Melech (Melechim pl.)
Hebrew
1. King; 2. The fifth and sixth books of the Nevi’im (I and II Kings)

Mem
Hebrew
1. Thirteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; 2. Represent the number forty

Menashos
Hebrew
1. Flour offerings and wine libations; 2. A tractate of Kodashim

Menorah [picture]
Hebrew 1.Six-branched candelabrum used by Jews in the Holy Temple; 2. Eight-branched candelabrum (also known as a Chanukiah) used during the Chanukah celebration

Meratefet
Hebrew Hovering

Mercaz
Hebrew Center

Mercaz Klita
Hebrew Absoprtion Center

Meshumad
Hebrew
An apostate Jew (one who has converted to another religion)

Messorah
Hebrew
Tradition

Mevushal
Hebrew
Pasteurization process used to ensure wine and grape juice is kosher

Mezuzah (Mezuzot pl.) [picture]
Hebrew Small parchment scroll, containing the first two paragraphs of the Shema, written by a scribe and affixed to the doorpost

M’gilat HaAtzmaut
Hebrew Israel’s Proclamation of Independence

Michah
Hebrew
1. Prophet of the Jews; 2. The fifteenth book of the Nevi’im (Micah)

Middah K’neged Middah
Hebrew [lit.] Measure for measure

Middot
Hebrew
1. Temple architecture; 2. A tractate of Kodashim

MiDivrei Soferim
Hebrew Sayings of the scribes (elders)

Midot
Hebrew
Ethics

Midrash (Midrashim pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. interpretation] Commentary and interpretations on Jewish laws, customs, and rituals

Midrash Rabbah
Hebrew
Collection of aggadic Midrashim to the Torah and the five Megillot

Migdal Bavel
Hebrew
Tower of Babel

Mikdash Ma’at
Hebrew
[lit. minor sanctuary] 1. Synagogue; 2. An allusion to a Jewish home

Miklatim (pl.)
Hebrew
Shelters

Mikrah Kodesh
Hebrew A sacred occasion

Mikveh (Mikavot pl.) [picture]
Hebrew 1. Ritual bath and immersion; 2. A tractate of Tohorot

Milah
Hebrew Circumcision

Minchah
Hebrew
Afternoon prayer

Minhag (Minhagim pl.)
Hebrew
Long-standing custom that has become religious practice

Minyan (Minyanim pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. number] Quorum of ten men required for communal prayer (Can be of ten men and/or women in non-Orthodox Judaism)

Mipnei Darchei Shalom
Hebrew [lit. in the interests of preserving peaceful relations] Promotion of peace

Mipnei Tikkun HaOlam
Hebrew [lit.] For the betterment of the world

Misheberach L’Cholim
Hebrew
Prayer for the sick

Mishkan
Hebrew
The Tabernacle

Mishlei
Hebrew
The second book of the Ketuvim (Proverbs)

Mishnah
Hebrew
[lit. repetition or teaching] Oral Torah

Mishnah Torah
Hebrew
[lit. Second Torah, repetition of the Torah] Master work on Jewish Law written by Maimonides

Mishpachah
Hebrew
(Hebrew/Yiddish) Family, relatives

Mishpat (Mishpatim pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. judgment] Ethical commandments of the Torah

Mitzraim
Hebrew
Egypt

Mitzvah (Mitzvot pl.)
Hebrew
1. A religious obligation; 2. One of the 613 Commandments written in the Torah

Mitzvah Aseh
Hebrew
A commandment to do

Mitzvah Lo Tasseh
Hebrew
A commandment of something not to do

Mitzvot HaTeluyot B’Aretz
Hebrew
Special laws that are only performed in the Land of Israel (specifically during the time the Temple stood)

Mitzvot Lo Tasseh
Hebrew
Negative commandments

Mizrach [picture]
Hebrew A small plaque placed on the Eastern wall of a home

Mizrachi
Hebrew [lit. eastern] Orthodox Zionist movement founded in 1902

Mizrachim (pl.)
Hebrew Jews from the Middle-East and Asia

M’lo
Hebrew Filled

Modim
Hebrew Prayer of thanksgiving said near the end of the Amidah

Moed
Hebrew
1. A fixed time or season; 2. A festival; 3. The second seder of the Mishnah/Talmud

Moed Katan
Hebrew
1. A minor festival; 2. Intermediate festival days; 3. A tractate of Moed

Moetzet Gedolai HaTorah
Hebrew Council of Torah Sages

Mohalot (f) (Mohelim pl.)
Hebrew
A religious Jew who is specially trained to perform ritual circumcisions

Mohel (m) (Mohelim pl.)
Hebrew
A religious Jew who is specially trained to perform ritual circumcisions

Moshav (Moshavim pl.)
Hebrew
1. Cooperative agricultural settlements established in Israel since 1921; 2.Base

Moshe Rabbenu
Hebrew
Moses our teacher

Moshiach
Hebrew
[lit. annointed one] 1. Messiah; 2. Any king or prophet of Israel

Motzi
Hebrew
Blessing recited over bread before a meal is eaten

Motzi Shabbat
Hebrew
Saturday night after Shabbos concludes

M’sadeir Kiddushin
Hebrew Officiate at a Jewish wedding

M’surevet Get
Hebrew A woman whose husband has refused to divorce her and give her a get (divorce document)

M’tzitzah
Hebrew Removing blood from the wound of the milah

Muktzah
Hebrew
[lit. set apart] Object forbidden to be used or carried on Shabbat or festivals

Musmahim
Hebrew Fully-ordained rabbis

Mussaf
Hebrew
The additional prayer of Shabbat and other Jewish holidays

Mutar
Hebrew Fully permitted actions

N
Nachalah
Hebrew Anniversary of the day of death (Sephardi)

Nachas
Hebrew
Joy, happiness

Nachum
Hebrew
1. Prophet of the Jews; 2. The sixteenth book of the Nevi’im (Nahum)

N’arim
Hebrew Boys

N’arot
Hebrew Girls

Nashim (pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. women] 1. The third seder of the Mishnah/Talmud

Nashot HaKotel
Hebrew Women of the Wall

Nasi
Hebrew
[lit. prince] 1. Head of a tribe in the Tanach; 2. During Roman times – the chief of the Sanhedrin

Navi (Nevi’im pl.)
Hebrew Prophet

Nazir
Hebrew
[lit. to separate] 1. A Jew who chooses to separate himself from wine and cutting one’s hair and acceptance of stricter behaviors in order to become closer to G-d; 2. A tractate of Nashim

N’davot
Hebrew Freewill offerings

N’dunyah
Hebrew Dowry

Nechemiah
Hebrew
The eleventh book of the Ketuvim (Nehemiah)

Nechemta
Hebrew 1. Hope; 2. Consolation

Nedarim
Hebrew
1. Various types of vows; 2. A tractate of Nashim

Negaim
Hebrew
1. Complex laws of tzareet; 2. A tractate of Tohorot

Negidim (pl.)
Hebrew Commissioners

Neifel
Hebrew Miscarried fetus (within 30-days of birth-date)

Ner Tamid [picture]
Hebrew A light that hangs in front of the ark where the Torah scrolls are kept in the synagogue

Nerot (pl.)
Hebrew
Candles

Nesi’im (pl.)
Hebrew Magistrates

Netilat Yadayim
Hebrew
[lit. washing of the hands] Ritual washing of the hands

Netzach
Hebrew
Victory

Nevi’im (pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. prophets] The second section of the Tanach

Nezikin
Hebrew
[lit. damages] The fourth seder of the Mishnah/Talmud

Niddah
Hebrew
1. The time when a woman is menstruating and is in a state of separation from her husband; 2. A tractate of Tohorot

Nidul
Hebrew Excommunication

Nigun (Nigunim pl.)
Hebrew Wordless melody

Nissan
Hebrew
First month of the Jewish year

Nisuin
Hebrew 1. Nuptials; 2. Marriage ceremony

Nivul HaMeit
Hebrew Desecration of a corpse

Nochri
Hebrew
1. Stranger; 2. Foreigner

N’tilat Yadayim
Hebrew Ritual washing of the hands

Nu
Yiddish
Well, So, Wassup – a word generally used to elicit a response

Nun
Hebrew
1. Fourteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; 2. Represents the number fifty

Nusah
Hebrew
Specific musical notes for reciting Jewish liturgy and Torah

O
Od
Hebrew Again

Oholot
Hebrew
1. Defilement caused by a corpse to houses; 2. A tractate of Tohorot

Ohr
Hebrew 1. Light 2. Light of day 3. Light of the sun, moon, stars 4. Daylight 5. Dawn 6. Morning light

Olah (f) (Olim pl.)
Hebrew
1. Immigrant to Israel; 2. Person called to the Torah

Olam
Hebrew World

Olam Ha-Ba
Hebrew
The World to Come

Oleh (m)/Olah (f) (Olim pl.)
Hebrew
1. Immigrant to Israel; 2. Person called to the Torah

Omer
Hebrew
[lit. shead] 1. A dry measure spoken of in Torah of the barley that was brought as an offering on the second day of Pesach; 2. The 49 day period of counting from the time of this offering until the Festival of Shavuot

Onein
Hebrew Male relative of the deceased who is responsible to bury the dead

Onenet
Hebrew Female relative of the deceased who is responsible to bury the dead

Oneg
Hebrew [lit. delight] A light snack after Shabbat services

Or Eitan
Hebrew [lit.] A mighty light

Orlah
Hebrew
1. Prohibition against harvesting tress for four years; 2. A tractate of Zeraim; 3. Foreskin

Ot Rabati
Hebrew Large letter

Ovadiah
Hebrew
1. Prophet of the Jews; 2. The thirteenth book of the Nevi’im (Obadiah)