Glossary (P-S)

Glossary >> Glossary (P-S)

P
Pamotot (pl.)
Hebrew
Candlesticks

Panah
Hebrew To turn

PaRDeS
Hebrew
[lit. orchard] Fourfold method of textual interpretation

Parah
Hebrew
1. Regulations concerning the red heifer; 2. A tractate of Tohorot

Pareve
Yiddish
[lit. neutral] Kosher food that is neither dairy nor meat

Parsha (Parshiot pl.)
Hebrew
Torah portion

Parsha HaShavua
Hebrew
Portion of the Torah read each week

Pasul
Hebrew
Ritually unfit

Pattur Aval Assur
Hebrew Actions to be avoided that lead to minor sanctions

Pattur Mi’klum
Hebrew Actions that should not be done but have no sanctions

Peah
Hebrew 1. Laws of gleaning and charity; 2. A tractate of Zeraim

Peney
Hebrew 1. Face 2. Presence 3. Surface 4. Indication of time or space (i.e. Before, Behind, In front of, Forward, Formerly)

Perek (Perakim pl.)
Hebrew
Chapters

Pesach
Hebrew
An eight day holiday celebrating the Exodus

Pesachdik
Hebrew
Acceptable for eating on Pesach

Pesachim
Hebrew
1. Laws of chametz and matzah and the paschal sacrifice; 2. A tractate of Moed

Pesukei DeZimra
Hebrew
Verse of Tehllim (Psalms)

Pey
Hebrew
1. Seventeenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; 2. Represents the number eighty

Pharisees
Hebrew
Ancient Jewish sect that believed that G-d gave both a Written Torah and Oral Torah to the Jewish people, both of which are equally binding

Pikuach Nefesh
Hebrew Saving a life

Pidyon Haben
Hebrew
Blessing for the redemption of the first-born son

Pikuach Nefesh
Hebrew [lit.] Saving a life

Pirkei (pl.)
Hebrew Ethics

Piskei Din
Hebrew Legal findings

Porchim
Hebrew Flourished

Posek (Poskim pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. decisor] Rabbi whose legal decision are authoritative

P’riah
Hebrew Cutting of the membrane covering the glands during the brit milah

Psakei Din
Hebrew Jewish legal documentation

Pshat
Hebrew
The plain meaning of a Scriptural passage

P’sukim
Hebrew
Verses

Ptilot (pl.)
Hebrew
Wicks

Purim
Hebrew
[lit. lots] A minor Jewish holiday that celebrates Queen Esther’s and Mordechai’s salvation of the Jewish people

Q
Qara
Hebrew 1. To call 2. Call out 3. Recite 4. Proclaim 5. Read

Qorbanot
Hebrew
Sacrifices and offerings in the Beit HaMikdash

R
Ra’ah
Hebrew 1. To see 2. To perceive 3. To look upon 4. To regard 5. To gaze 6. To give attention to

Rabbi
Hebrew
[lit. teacher] A Jewish teacher or leader who is authorized to make decisions regarding Jewish Law

Rabeinu
Hebrew
Our teacher

Ram
Hebrew Exalted

Rasha
Hebrew
Evil person

Rav
Hebrew
Rabbi

Rebbe
Yiddish
[lit. my rabbi] Chasidic spiritual leader

Rebbetizin
Hebrew
1. A rabbi’s wife; 2. A Torah-learned female

Reishit
Hebrew 1. Beginning 2. First 3.Chief 4.Choice Part

Remez
Hebrew Hidden Illusion

Resh
Hebrew
1. Twentieth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; 2. Represents the number two-hundred

Resh Galuta
Hebrew
[lit. head of the exile] Appointed head of the Babylonian Jewish community in the first millennium CE

Resha’im (pl.)
Hebrew Wicked ones

Reshit
Hebrew Beginning

Responsa
Hebrew
Authoritative answers to questions on Jewish law

R’fuah
Hebrew Healing

Rimon (Rimonim pl.) [picture]
Hebrew Pomegranate

Rosh
Hebrew 1. Head (animals, mankind) 2. Top/Tip (mountain) 3. Height (stars) 4. Chief/Head (mankind, city, nation, place, family, priest) 5. Front 6. Beginning 7. Choicest 8. Division 9. Company 10. Band 11. Sum

Rosh Chodesh
Hebrew
[lit. the head of the month] The holiday that occurs on the first and thirtieth day of each Jewish month

Rosh Hashanah
Hebrew
[lit. head of the year] 1. The Jewish new year; 2. A tractate of Moed

R’shut
Hebrew Legal domain

Ruach
Hebrew 1. Wind 2. Breath 3. Mind 4. Spirit 5. Spirit of God 6. To breath 7. To blow 8. To smell 9. Scent 10. Perceive odor

Rut
Hebrew
1. Convert to Judaism and ancestor of King David; 2. The fifth book of the Ketuvim (Ruth)

S
Sabra
Hebrew
1. Fruit that is tough on the outside and sweet on the inside; 2. Describes a native-born Israeli

Safrut
Hebrew
Laws pertaining to writing a Sefer Torah

Samech
Hebrew
1. Fifteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet; 2. Represent the number sixty

Sandek
Hebrew
“Godfather” who holds the child during the brit

Sandekit
Hebrew “Godmother” who holds the child during the brit

Sanhedrin
Hebrew
[lit. council] 1. Chief judicial and legislative body of the Jews in Israel in the late Greek and Roman times; 2. Name given to the Jewish assembly convoked by Napoleon in 1807; 3. A tractate of Nezikin

Sargel
Hebrew Non-base metal implement used to scribe guidelines on parchments used to write sacred scriptures

S’chach
Hebrew The covering of a Sukkah consisting of natural growth that allows the ability to see the sky

Se’ah
Hebrew Unit of measurement

Seder (Sedarim pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. order] 1. The meal and retelling of the Exodus from Egypt during Passover (Pesach); 2. A section of the Talmud

Seder P’ridah
Hebrew [lit. ritual of release] A form of religious divorce in Reform Judaism

Sefer
Hebrew
Book

Sefer Torah (Sifrei Torah pl.) [picture]
Hebrew Torah Scroll

Sefirat HaOmer
Hebrew
Counting of the 49 days of the Omer between Passover and Shavuot

Sephardim
Hebrew
Descendants of Jews from Spain, Portugal, North Africa

Se’udat Havra’ah
Hebrew
Meal of Condolence

Se’udat Shlishit
Hebrew
Third Shabbat meal

Sevel Hayerusha
Hebrew [lit.] The yoke of inheritance

S’firat HaOmer
Hebrew Counting of the Omer

Shaarei Shamayim
Hebrew [lit.] Gates of heaven

Shabbat (Shabbos) (Shabbatot pl.)
Hebrew
1. The Jewish Sabbath; 2. A tractate of Moed

Shabbat Bereishit
Hebrew
First Shabbat after Simchat Torah

Shabbat Chazon
Hebrew
[lit. Shabbat of Vision] Shabbat before Tish B’Av

Shabbat Goy
Hebrew
A non-Jew who does work on Shabbat that is not permitted for a Jew

Shabbat HaChodesh
Hebrew
The Shabbat prior to Rosh Chodesh Nisan

Shabbat HaGadol
Hebrew
[lit. Great Shabbat] The Shabbat prior to Pesach

Shabbat Mevarchim
Hebrew
The Sabbath on which the coming month is blessed

Shabbat Nachamu
Hebrew
The Sabbath following the Tish B’Av

Shabbat Parah
Hebrew
Special Shabbat immediately preceding Shabbat HaChodesh during which we read about the Red Heifer

Shabbat Shabbaton
Hebrew
A High Sabbath

Shabbat Shalom
Hebrew
[lit. Sabbath of peace] Shabbat greeting

Shabbat Shekalim
Hebrew
The Shabbat on (or proceeding) Rosh Chodesh Adar where the Torah portion that recalls the contribution of a shekel to the Temple economy is read

Shabbat Shirah
Hebrew
[lit. Shabbat of Song] Shabbat when Parsah Beshalach is read

Shabbat Shuvah
Hebrew
[lit. Shabbat of Return] The Sabbath between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur

Shabbat Zachor
Hebrew
The Sabbath of remembrance before Purim

Shabbaton (Shabbatonim pl.)
Hebrew
1. Term used in the Tanach to describe Yomim Tovim; 2. Special Shabbat program of learning and fellowship

Shacharit
Hebrew
Morning prayer service

Shadchan
Hebrew
Matchmaker

Shahid
Arabic
Martyr

Shaliach (Shlichim pl.)
Hebrew
A representative of a community or organization

Shaliach Tzibbur
Hebrew Prayer leader

Shalom
Hebrew
[lit. peace] A greeting of hello or goodbye

Shalom Bayit
Hebrew [lit.] Peace in the home

Shalosh Seudot
Hebrew
Three meals of Shabbat

Shamash
Hebrew Servant

Shamayim
Hebrew 1. Heaven (abode of God) 2. Heaven 3. Heavens 4. Sky

Shamerim Yisraelim (pl.)
Hebrew Samaritans of Holon, Israel, Mount Gerizim, and Nablus

Shamor
Hebrew
1. Safeguard; 2. Observe

Shavua
Hebrew
Week

Shavuot (pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. weeks] A holiday commemorating the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai

Shechinah
Hebrew
The Divine Presence

Shechitah
Hebrew
Ritual slaughtering

Shehecheyanu
Hebrew
[lit. Who has granted us life] Blessing pronounced on seasonal and other occasions for thanksgiving

Shekalim
Hebrew
1. The shekel dues for the Temple and Temple ceremonies; 2. A tractate of Moed

Shekel
Hebrew
Monetary unit used in Israel

Shema
Hebrew
[lit. hear] A central Jewish prayer that proclaims the Oneness of Hashem and the Jewish dedication to Hashem

Shemenoeh Esrei
Hebrew
[lit. eighteen] The main Amidah prayer

Shemini Atzeret
Hebrew
[lit. assembly of the eighth] The last day of Sukkot

Shemitah
Hebrew
The Sabbatical year that occurs every seven years in Israel

Shemot
Hebrew
[lit. names] The second book of the Torah (Exodus)

Sheon Shabbat
Hebrew
Shabbat clock

Shetar
Hebrew Transmission of a document declaring an intent to marry

Sheva Berachot
Hebrew
Seven marriage blessings

Shevat
Hebrew
Eleventh month of the Jewish year

Shevatim (pl.)
Hebrew
Tribes

Shevi’it
Hebrew
1. Laws of the sabbatical year; 2. A tractate of Zeraim

Shevuot
Hebrew
1. Oaths; 2. A tractate of Nezikin

Shechitah
Hebrew
Slaughter

Shiduchin
Hebrew Engagement

Shikur
Hebrew Drunkard

Simchah (Simchot pl.)
Hebrew Special occassions

Shin
Hebrew
1. Twenty-first letter of the Hebrew alphabet; 2. Represents the number three-hundred

Shir Hamalot
Hebrew
The Psalm sung before bentching

Shir HaShirim
Hebrew
The fourth book of the Ketuvim (Song of Songs)

Shir HaShirim Rabbah
Hebrew Rabbinic midrash on Shir HaShirim

Shirtut
Hebrew Top guideline for writing on parchment

Shiur
Hebrew
Lesson in Talmud

Shiva
Hebrew
[lit. seven] A seven-day mourning period observed by Jews who have lost a close relative

Shiva Azara B’Tammuz
Hebrew
A day-fast commemorating the many tragedies that have befallen the Jewish people on this day

Shiva Mitzvot
Hebrew
Seven mitzvot (of the B’nei Noach)

Shleph
Yiddish
To carry

Sh’liach Tzibur
Hebrew Leader of the prayer service

Sh’loshim
Hebrew 30-day period of mourning

Shmaltz
Hebrew
Rendered chicken fat

Shmirat Lashon
Hebrew
Guarding one’s tongue

Shmirat Shabbat
Hebrew
Observance of Shabbat

Shmooze
Yiddish
A long, friendly chat

Sh’muah K’rovah
Hebrew [lit. timely news] Hearing of a relative’s death after 30-days of the burial

Sh’muah R’chokah
Hebrew [lit. delayed news] Hearing of a relative’s death within 30-days of the burial

Shmuel
Hebrew
1. King of Israel; 2. The third and fourth books of the Nevi’im (I and II Samuel)

Shmutz
Yiddish
Trivial amount of nuisance dirt

Shoah
Hebrew
[lit. destruction] Holocaust

Shochet (Shochtim pl.)
Hebrew
A religious Jew who is specially trained to slaughter meat according to kosher laws

Shofar
Hebrew
A ram’s horn blown during Rosh Hashanah services

Shofarot
Hebrew God’s revelation of Torah and the hope of redemption

Shofet (Shoftim pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. judge] The second book of the Nevi’im

Shomer
Hebrew
A Jew who reads Psalms while sitting with a deceased Jew prior to burial

Shomer Shabbat
Hebrew
One who traditionally observes Shabbat

Shoshbinim (pl.)
Hebrew Male attendants at a Jewish wedding who escort the bride and groom to the chuppah

Shoshbinot (pl.)
Hebrew Female attendants at a Jewish wedding who escort the bride and groom to the chuppah

Shtar
Hebrew Document

Shtetl
Yiddish
[lit. little town] Small Jewish eastern European village in early modern times

Shtibl
Yiddish
[lit. little house] Small Jewish eastern European synagogue in early modern times

Shuk
Yiddish
Market

Shul
Yiddish
[lit. school] A synagogue as described as a house of study

Shulchan Aruch
Hebrew
[lit. a set table] The standard Code of Jewish Law compiled by Rabbi Yosef Caro in the mid-sixteenth century

Sh’varim (pl.)
Hebrew Short blasts of a shofar

Siddur (Siddurim pl.)
Hebrew
[lit. arrangement] Jewish prayer book

Sidrah (Sidrot pl.)
Hebrew Torah portion

Sifrei Deuteronomy
Hebrew Early tannaitic midrash to Deuteronomy

Sifrei Numbers
Hebrew Early tannaitic midrash to Numbers

Simcha
Hebrew
[lit. happiness] A Jewish family or communal celebration

Simcha Bat
Hebrew
Ceremony welcoming the birth of a daughter

Simchat Torah
Hebrew
[lit. rejoicing of the Torah] Holiday immediately following Sukkot on which the yearly Torah-reading cycle is concluded and recommenced

Sin
Hebrew
1. Twenty-first letter of the Hebrew alphabet; 2. Represents the number three-hundred

Sinat Chinam
Hebrew Baseless hatred

Siruv
Hebrew Contempt of Court

Sitra Achra
Hebrew [lit. the other side] The side of impurity

Sitra D’Kedushah
Hebrew The side of holiness

Sivan
Hebrew
Third month of the Jewish year

Siyyum
Hebrew
[lit. conclusion] Celebration marking one’s completion of the study of a portion of Torah or Talmud

S’lichot (pl.)
Hebrew Penitential prayers

Smicha
Hebrew
Ordination

Sofer
Hebrew
[lit. the counter] A (male) Jewish scribe who writes religious texts

Soferet
Hebrew
[lit. the counter] A (female) Jewish scribe who write religious texts

Sofrut
Hebrew Creation of sacred Hebrew texts

Sotah
Hebrew
1. Laws concerning adulteress, murder in which the perpetrator is unknown, and war; 2. A tractate of Nashim

Stav
Hebrew
Autumn

S’udah Mafseket
Hebrew Concluding meal before Yom Kippur fast

S’udat HaVraah
Hebrew [lit. meal of consolation] Meal provided to mourners after a burial service

S’udat Mitzvah
Hebrew Festive meal

Sukkah [picture]
Hebrew 1. Special, temporary booths used during Sukkot; 2. A tractate of Moed

Sukkot
Hebrew
A seven-day holiday of dwelling in a Sukkah

Synagogue
Greek
[lit. house of assembly] Building in which Jews would congregate to meet, study, and/or worship5